Applications of constructed wetlands

Constructed wetlands were born for the treatment of domestic and urban wastewater from small and medium size settlements. Thanks to the advance from the Scientific Community, constructed wetlands widen the fields of application to different types of wastewater. A not exhaustive list of most relevant constructed wetland application fields is following reported:
IRIDRA - Centri urbani

Urban Centres

IRIDRA - Complessi turistici

Touristic activities

IRIDRA - CSO - Sfioratori di fognatura mista

CSO - Combined sewer overflow

IRIDRA - Effluente depuratori centralizzati

Tertiary treatment

IRIDRA - Recupero acque grigie

Agri-food industries

(Dairies, Wineries)

IRIDRA - Fitodepurazione industrie agroalimentari

Sludge dewatering

IRIDRA - Prime piogge da acque meteoriche di dilavamento

Grey water reuse

IRIDRA - Riduzione nutrienti

Landfill leachates

IRIDRA - Fitodepurazione fanghi

Nutrient removal

IRIDRA - Uliveti e acque di vegetazione

Stormwater runoff


Swine wastewater

IRIDRA - Utenze domestiche e singole abitazioni

Olive mills

IRIDRA - Zootecnici

Single and small group of houses

Constructed wetlands (CWs) are probably after activated sludge systems the most widely used treatment technique in the world for the treatment of civil effluents in terms of number of plants; their use for small and medium users has led to the realization of a large number of systems especially for scattered houses and isolated centers, but there is also no shortage of larger systems for small to medium urban centers below 5,000 p.e. and even for larger capacities (the Orhei plant in Moldova can serve up to 20,000 p.e.). It is a long-standing internationally tested solution that guarantees, if well designed, excellent treatment levels and consistency of performance. CWs are very powerful "bioreactors" that can block, degrade and transform a broad spectrum of pollutants through complex chemical, physical and biological processes that occur naturally, without the use of chemicals or need for energy.

With advancing research, the study of filling materials and plants used, and new techniques for forced oxygen circulation, CWs are also well suited to many other types of wastewater and applications: from wastewater from many agri-food (wineries, dairies, etc.) and livestock activities (livestock farms, digestates from anaerobic digesters for energy production) to some industrial discharges (there are successful applications for the textile industry, to mine leachates or landfill leachates), from polluted stormwater runoff, to mixed sewer overflows, to nutrient reduction contributed by agriculture.

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